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Exhibition Highlights Part 3

MusashimoTadamasashodai

Akasaka Tsuba

decorated with reeds, dewdrops and a lost stirrup on the Musashi fields.

TadatoraKiku

Akasaka Tsuba

Tadatora kiku.

"We hope that the various examples shown in these updates give you an indication of what will be on show at Samurai Art expo as part of the exhibition programme."

This is the last part of our comprehensive list of exhibits, which has been published in three parts over the last few weeks. Even so, it is still incomplete and further exhibits will be added as they are confirmed.

Alongside the excellent display of Iron Tsuba, we will have some beautiful examples of soft metal workmanship.

Nobuiye-hanare-mei

Nobuiye Tsuba

decorated with Morning Glory flowers and scrolls, Momoyama Period.

Previously within the collections of Noda Kiyoshige and Kobayashi Hideo.

Appears in the following publications:

Token Kinko “Mei-saku Shu Nobuiye Hen” Amiya Okura Soemon,1937.

“Tsuba Kansho” by Noda Kiyoshige, 1963, p.  100, 101.

“Kobayashi Hideo Bi o Nagameru Kokoro" (The  Heart in Search of Beauty) by Kobayashi Hideo, 2002.

Matsu

Tsuba Kiyo Sukashi Matsu

Mitsudomoe

Tsuba ko-Katchushi

Swirling clouds Nambokucho.

SuhamaniWarabite

Shiho-Suhama

consisting of four modified trefoils, steel, middle Muromachi period.

Previously within the collections of Sasano Masayuki, as well as of the Tosogu Bijutsukan and the Museum of Japanese Sword  Fittings in Tokyo.

Appears in the following publications:

Sasano Masayuki, “Early Japanese Sword  Guards - Sukashi Tsuba” Japan Publications,  Inc., 1972.

Exhibited at the Sano Museum.

Sangi

Sangi

Crossbars, steel, Muromachi - Momoyama  period.

Previously within the collections of Akiyama  Kyusaku, Sasano Masayuki and the Museum of  Japanese Sword Fittings Tokyo.

Appears in the following publications:

Sasano Masayuki, “The Sasano Collection Part One” 1994.

“Bushi no Ito Sukashi Tsuba” Sano Museum Mishima, 1999.

This tsuba was also exhibited at the Sano Museum, Mishima in 1999 and the Nihon Tosogu Bijutsukan (The Japanese Museum of Sword Fittings, Tokyo) in 1995.

Naminitorii

Yagyu-Tsuba “Nami ni Torii”

showing waves and a shrine gate, steel.

Previously in the collections of Sasano  Masayuki, Nihon Tosogu Bijutsukan (the  Japanese Museum of Sword Fittings, Tokyo).

Appears within the following publications:

Sasano Masayuki, “Early Japanese Sword Guards - Sukashi Tsuba”Japan Publications, Inc., 1972, Sasano Masayuki,

“The Sasano Collection Part One” exhibited at the Nihon Tosogu Bijutsukan (the Japanese Museum of Sword Fittings, Tokyo)  1995

Exhibited at The Museum of Japanese Sword Fittings Tokyo (Nihon Tosogu Bijutsukan).

TadamasaShiguretei

Akasaka-Tsuba “Shiguretei”

depicting an autumnal drizzle, first master Shozaemon.

Tadamasa, early Edo period, Juyo Tosogu.

Previously in the collection of Sasano Masayuki.

Appears in the following publications:

E. Kremers, “Tsuba in European Collections” 1993.

Juyo Token Zufu, 2012, Tosogu p. 11. Nihon  Token Hakubutsukan.

Exhibited in the Nihon Token Hakubutsukan, 2013.

MusashinoTadamasanidai

Akasaka-Tsuba “Karigane Musashi-no”

Showing a goose, reeds and  dewdrops on the  battlefields  of  Musashi. By the 2nd  master  Tadamasa.

Previously within the collection of Sasano  Masayuki.

Appears within the following publications:  Tosogu Yuhin Zufu Shoyu Kai, Vol. 8, 1989.

HirataJinbeiTaka

Hirata Jinbei “Taka no Zu”

decorated with a hawk on a pine tree, early  Edo period by the 1st master Shimizu family.

Previously within the collections of Hosokawa Gyobu-ke, Komemo Kenichi, Sasano Masayuki and Ito Mitsuru.

Appears in the following publications:

Ito  Mitsuru, “Works of Hirata and Shimizu” 2007.

HirataJinbeiFukuro

Hirata Jinbei

decorated with an owl on a pine tree. By 1st master Shimizu family, from early Edo period.  Juyo Tosogu 1964.

Previously within the collections of Hosokawa  Gyobu-ke, Komeno Kenichi and Komeno Fumio.

Appears within the following publications:

“Higo Kinko Taikan”, 1964.

“Higo no Kinko”, 1978, exhibition catalogue of the Kumamoto Bijutsukan.

Ito Mitsuru “Works of Hirata and Shimizu” 2007.

Exhibited at “Tsuba no Bijutsu Ten Matsusakaya” Tokyo in 1952 and at the first exhibition of Kodogu after WW2 at the Tokyo National Museum in 1963. Thereafter exhibited at the Kumamoto Art Museum in 1978.

HirataJinbeiryu

Hirata Jinbei “Ama-ryu to Tama”

decorated with a sky dragon holding a jewel. From the early Edo period, by the 1st master of the Shimizu family.

Previously within the collections of Hosokawa Gyobu-ke, Komeno Kenichi and Komeno Fumio.

Appears in the following publications:

“Higo Kinko Taikan”, 1964.

“Higo no Kinko”, 1978, exhibition catalogue of the Kumamoto Bijutsukan.

Ito Mitsuru “Works of Hirata and Shimizu” 2007.

Exhibited at “Tsuba no Bijutsu Ten” Matsusakaya in Tokyo, 1952, as well as in the first exhibition of Kodogu after WW2 at the Tokyo National Museum in 1963. Also exhibited at the Kumamoto Art Museum in 1978.

We hope that the various examples shown in these updates give you an indication of what will be on show at Samurai Art expo as part of the exhibition programme. As previously mentioned this list is not complete, but amongst the work already identified there is a Tokubetsu Juyo daito, 6 Juyo blades and an equal number of Juyo Koshirae and fittings. Alongside these are other examples of craftsmanship, many of which have been illustrated in Japanese reference texts, which are exceptional works. There is a great deal to be gained from studying them first hand.

We hope to see you there and will be happy to discuss any of the work on show with you.

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Exhibition Highlights

The following is a compilation of earlier post highlights, supplemented with confirmed exhibits and images. All of these works will be on display on Saturday 16th June at our educational events.

This is part 1 of 3 of our comprehensive list of exhibits, which will be published over the coming weeks. Even so, it is still incomplete and further exhibits will be added as they are confirmed.

Alongside the excellent display of Iron Tsuba, we will have some beautiful examples of soft metal workmanship.

BizenFukuoka-IchimonjiYoshimune

Bizen Fukuoka-Ichimonji Yoshimune

"tokubetsu-jûyô-tôken" 28. April 2000
tachi: Mei  Yoshimune (吉宗)      (ca. Shôgen 正元, 1259-1260, Province Bizen)
with uchigatana-koshirae

There are few signed tachi by Yoshimune and this is the only tokubetsu Juyo example. Another one is Juyo bunkasai, which is the property of  Tsukubasan-jinja (Prefecture Ibaraki) and belongs to the ex-collection of the Daimyo Family Yanagisawa. Published.

"Aito Hyakka / Sen  -  100 swords of 100 collectors" Hayashi Eiroku / Schuppan Tokyo 1972

AwataguchiNorikuni

Awataguchi Norikuni

A daito with three attributions to the smith, including a sayagaki by Tanobe Michiro Sensei, in which he describes it as "A Master Work of the Kamakura period".
There are eight Norikuni blades on the Juyo register. Four of them are tanto, three of which have progressed to Tokubetsu Juyo. There are three Juyo bunkasai and three Juyo bijutsu-hin and one, a signed daito, Kokuho.

SadakatsuKogarasu-Maru

Sadakatsu Kogarasu-Maru

Made to celebrate the 2600th anniversary of the founding of the Empire.  It is a copy of the famous Heian period work of the same name.

MumeikatanaAoe
MumeikatanaAoe

Mumei katana attributed to Aoe

Designated Juyo Token at the 13th shinsa held in 1965.

The blade has a faint shu mei and a Sayagaki by Honami Kozon attributing the work to Aoe Tsunetsugu. The accompanying papers confirm this is a smith working at the end of the Kamakura period, not the ko-Aoe smith of the same name.

MumeiNaginataNaoshiShikkake

Mumei Naginata Naoshi attributed to Shikkake

Designated Juyo Token at the 46th Juyo shinsa held in 2000.

The blade has a sayagaki By Tanobe Michiro sensei describing it as "An important treasure from the beginning of the Nambokucho period."

MumeiO-suriagewakazashiEnju

Mumei O-suriage wakazashi attributed to Enju

Designated Tokubetsu Hozon.

Sekishi Naotsuna

Juyo Token.

Naotsuna is listed in some references as one of Masamune’s 10 brilliant pupils. Whether he studied under the master or not, his works show incredible Soshu influence.

Naginata Tachi. Mei: Hishu  Kawachi no kami  Fujiwara  Masahiro (Nidai)

Considered by many to be the best Masahiro, the Nidai was the contemporary of Omi Daijo Tadahiro and worked closely with him.

His work is of exceptional quality even when viewed alongside other Hizen work.

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Don’t limit your thinking!

At risk of sounding like an ageing hippy, I think the best music ever was performed between 1965 and 1976. During that period musicians and their fans were compartmentalised. If you liked heavy rock music (I did), you couldn’t like Motown and heaven forbid you should be caught out listening to “top of the pops” and all that “commercial” rubbish. Strangely, as time moves on, the compartments and classifications become increasingly flimsy and ill defined and I start to find I enjoy all sorts of other work. Is Rock Music from the early 70s still the best there is? Absolutely. Is it all there is? Absolutely not.

As in Music, there is a danger of allowing oneself to become too focussed on a very limited period, school or style of Japanese antiques. I seem to have gained a reputation for only liking ultra conservative Yamashiro workmanship and believing the only colour for lacquer in koshirae is black. I admit there is some truth in this and I have for many years focussed on Yamashiro koto work and later work, such as Hizen, that has its origins in this style.

There really is nothing finer than a Yamashiro suguha hamon on a tight ko-itame hada covered in ji-nie and enclosed within a gentle and dignified sugata. Or a beautiful koshirae with black lacquered saya and Iron tsuba

Sorry, I am getting carried away!

swordBlueBackground
image2

In recent years, I have been able to visit different collectors and attend different society meetings. As well as enjoying meeting some very friendly and knowledgeable people, I have also taken the opportunity to look at some beautiful artwork. The more I looked, the more I questioned my single-minded approach. I was seeing stunningly beautiful work from the Bizen tradition, incredible Osaka Shinto blades and wonderful later work from Satsuma and then Shin-Shinto masters. In fact the more I looked, the more I realised how limiting my methodology was.

There have been beautiful swords and fittings made throughout all sword periods and masterpieces produced within many schools.

image3
image4

Now comes the challenge. When starting out you are confronted with a vast range of work from different periods, traditions and schools, which can be extremely daunting. It therefore makes perfect sense to focus on one area to start with and learn as much as you can about that. However, in adopting this method (I did) there is a danger of becoming too blinkered in your approach and missing beautiful work that is staring you in the face.

In the exhibition at Utrecht and on the commercial stands, there will be an incredible diversity of items. While it makes sense to go with a plan as to what you want to see or may be looking to purchase, be prepared to be diverted. Sometimes allowing emotion (i.e. “I just like it”) to govern your choices can be every bit as rewarding as following a set plan. Take this opportunity to look at pieces you might not normally consider and see what makes them special. If it isn’t immediately apparent to you, ask someone else for their opinion. By doing this, you are less likely to miss something really special and will learn a great deal more in the process. We will rarely have the opportunity to study of such quality and diversity so let’s make the most of it.

Just for the record, in my opinion:

Black Sabbath were undoubtedly the best band in the 1960s/70s

image5

and

Yamashiro Awataguchi smiths were undoubtedly the best smiths ever

image6

But I must admit that there were other exceptional works produced by other artists as well!!

By Paul Bowman

 

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Additional exhibits at Samurai Art Expo

As promised, listed below is confirmation of additional pieces that will be on display at Samurai Art expo, together with images of items previously mentioned. This list is by no means exhaustive, it is just a taste of some of the many fine works visitors will be able to enjoy.

9. Mumei katana attributed to Aoe

MumeikatanaAoe
MumeikatanaAoe

10. Mumei Naginata Naoshi attributed to Shikkake:

Designated Juyo Token at the 46th Juyo shinsa held in 2000. The blade has a sayagaki By Tanobe Michiro sensei describing it as “An important treasure from the beginning of the Nambokucho period.”

MumeiNaginataNaoshiShikkake

11. Mumei O-suriage wakazashi attributed to Enju

Designated Tokubetsu Hozon
MumeiO-suriagewakazashiEnju

12. Akasaka Tsuba: Reeds dewdrops and lost stirrup on the Musashi

8

13. Akasaka Tsuba Tadatora kiku

9

14. Nobuiye Tsuba

10-1

15. Tsuba Kiyo Sukashi Matsu

11

16. Tsuba ko-Katchushi Swirling clouds Nambokucho

12

Over the next 14 days, I will add more information. To date we have 2 Tokubetsu Juyo swords and 6 Juyo blades offered and possibly more to come. We anticipate having fine examples of both swords and fittings from all periods and most traditions of Manufacture on show.

by Paul Bowman

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What makes a good Tsuba?

What makes a good Tsuba?

It’s a title that might be asking for trouble but bear with me a while. At Samurai Art Expo, in the exhibition and on the commercial tables, visitors will have an opportunity to see tsuba and other fittings of high quality and great beauty. When viewing all these important pieces, I thought it might be worth pausing to consider what characteristics make one tsuba better than others.

With swords it is easier. It is generally accepted that much of the intrinsic beauty within a blade is a consequence of the smith trying to improve its functionality. It is a classic example of form following function. Thus the shape, the hardened edge and the welded pattern all contribute to its efficiency as a cutting weapon. With a tsuba the function is simple; it prevents the user’s hand sliding on to the blade when they are using it. This being the case, a simple iron disc would suffice. Clearly the design of tsuba goes well beyond functionality. It effectively becomes a work of art where the composition plays a major role in the overall quality of the piece.

Two of the key elements to consider in assessing fittings are material and composition.

Material- As with swords, a good tsuba requires good raw material. If the material used is sub-standard it is impossible to achieve the desired patination and finish, which contributes so much to the finished piece. If the raw material is bad, the resultant tsuba will be as well. Taking this to the next stage, the patination and finish of the piece is equally important: the richness of colour and lustre achieved contribute enormously to the beauty of the end product.

1.) Tadamasa Shiguretei
5.) Tomimatsu, Shigemitsu

Composition- While good material is essential, it is far from being the whole picture. There are many examples of fittings being made from top quality material that still fail to inspire the observer. Unlike swords, tsuba are far more about art than functionality. Assuming the materials to be of high quality, it is the composition that differentiates the great from the ordinary. This is of course very subjective and we all have our own ideas as to what constitutes a good composition. This is why there is such diverse range within tsuba manufacturing. However, there are some basic pointers to consider:

  1. Would it make a good painting? If the answer is yes, it suggests the balance of the component parts is aesthetically pleasing and works for the observer.
  2. There are two areas, in which Japanese artisans excel in regards to composition. The first is in taking a large subject and fitting it into a limited space. Whether this is a towering willow on a sukashi tsuba or a horse on a kodzuka, they manage to fit a vast subject into a very limited space without making the end result look crowded. The second key factor is the use of negative composition. They are not afraid to leave empty space within a composition. At first, this seems to contradict the first point, but in fact it compliments it. Some of the best examples of the art take a single object, reproduce it beautifully, then surround it with space. This approach creates a considerable impression of depth and magnitude.
  3. The final thing to consider in composition is the use of a partial subject. Recently described to me by a friend as the difference between starting with a tsuba and making a design to fit it or starting with the design and placing the tsuba within it. As with the points above, seeing part of a composition rather than the complete picture can greatly enhance the feeling of space and depth. It is a technique often successfully used in painting and one which adds greatly to the aesthetic of a tsuba.
Nami ni torii
3 copy

To summarise the above: the creation of tsuba goes far beyond their functionality. In many ways they are more of a work of art rather than a purely practical way to prevent losing your fingers.

As an artwork there are two key things to consider. Material (quality, colour and finish) and then composition. As with all art, beauty is in the eye of the beholder, so what I like you might not and vice versa, but the basic rules on composition hold true regardless of subject. When looking at the very many fittings at the event, consider these factors and see if you agree.

By Paul Bowman

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Event Highlights

Exhibition Highlights:

In earlier posts I have stated that the exhibition at Samurai Art expo will offer visits an excellent opportunity to see high quality workmanship. I wanted to share with you some of the items that have been offered for show.

1. Bizen Fukuoka-Ichimonji Yoshimune,                                                                                                                                      “tokubetsu-jûyô-tôken“ 28. April 2000   tachi: mei  Yoshimune (吉宗)      (ca. Shôgen (正元, 1259-1260), Province Bizen) with uchigatana-koshirae.                                                                                                                                                      There are few signed tachi by Yoshimune.  This is the only tokubetsu Juyo example another  is Juyo bunkasai and the property of  Tsukubasan-jinja (Prefecture Ibaraki), ex collection of the Daimyo Family  Yanagisawa, published. “Aito Hyakka / Sen  -  100 swords of 100 collectors“ Hayashi Eiroku / Schuppan Tokyo 1972

BizenFukuoka-IchimonjiYoshimune

2. Ishiguro Masayoshi soroi-kanagu
jûyô-tôsôgu 25. März 1987
kachô-mushi no zu soroi-kanagu
En suite Set of Flowers, Insects etc
daishô-fuchi, mei: Ishiguro Masayoshi saku (石黒政美作)
menuki, divided tanzaku-mei: Ishiguro – Masayoshi (石黒政美)
kozuka and kôgai, mei: Jugakusai Masayoshi (寿岳斎政美)
It had been a heirloom of the Shimazu-Famiy (島津) for whom Masayoshi worked from Edo.

image2

3. Hirata Jinbei,                                                                                                                                                                                                  1st Shimizu master Tsuba depicting an owl on a tree in Suemon Zogan, Juyo Tosogu. Ex coll. Hosokawa Gyobu-ke, Komeno Kenichi, Publ. “Higo Kinko Taikan”, “Higo no Kinko”, “Works of Hirata and Shimizu” by Itô Mitsuru, exhibited 1953 Matsusakaya, first exhibition of Kodogu after WW II, exh. at Tokyo National Museum, exh. At Kumamoto Bijutsukan, aso. Also other works by this particular Master and his descendants,
Manifold standard literature published Sukashi tsuba throughout the ages from famous Japanese collections, exhibited at the Sword Museum Tokyo, Sano Museum, Mishina and other places including Juyo Tosogu

4. Awataguchi Norikuni-
A daito with three attributions to the smith, including a sayagaki by Tanobe Michiro Sensei in which he describes it as “A Master Work of the Kamakura period”.
There are eight Norikuni blades on the Juyo register four are tanto (three have progressed to Tokubetsu Juyo). There are 3x Juyo bunkasai and 3xJuyo bijutsu-hin and 1, a signed daito, Kokuho.

AwataguchiNorikuni

5. Sadakatsu Kogarasu-Maru
Made to celebrate the 2600th anniversary of the founding of the Empire.  It is a copy of the famous Heian period work of the same name

6. Mainline Gotô-works by all generations including Juyo tosogu

7. Juyo Tensho koshirae,                                                                                                                                                                                Exhibited at the Tokyo National Museum exhibition Uchi-gatana koshirae 1980, from the Hosokawa- and Matsui-Family heritage with provenances of famous Japanese collections

8. Several Higo koshirae from the Hosokawa- and Matsui-Family heritage with provenances of famous Japanese collections

From this brief snapshot you can see that the exhibition will offer the visitor a unique opportunity to see items not normally on public display. To see work of this rarity and standard outside of Japan (or even inside) would be extremely difficult.
As the content is being finalised I will add additional information.

by Paul Bowman

 

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The rambling thoughts of a foolish hermit

Kyu_no_Gomon_Kanshiro_nidai

The title above formed part of a sayagaki on a sword I bought many years ago. Needless to say the use of this title did not fill me with great confidence as to the authenticity of either the attribution or contents of the shirasaya. However, while sitting in an office in the far north on a very frosty morning to start something new, it feels somehow appropriate.

The objective of this blog is to try and stimulate thinking and ideas and to offer some pointers relating to the up and coming Samurai Art Expo event. Time is precious and the opportunities to take part in such shows as this, particularly in Europe, are few and far between. It is important that visitors gain the maximum benefit they can from the experience.

I want to start with a brief discussion on fittings. For more than 30 years I have been a serious sword collector and student. I confess that my passion for swords has failed to generate equal enthusiasm for tsuba or small fittings and I often ask myself why.

With swords, collectors and students alike are very fortunate, even sitting in isolation as I am, with a few clicks of a mouse it is possible to view exceptional examples of a swordsmith's craft online. Many of these examples appear on commercial websites where Juyo and Tokubetsu Juyo blades appear regularly and in many cases are beautifully photographed and displayed. I often click on to examples that set my pulse racing and stimulate me to research a particular school or smith. Fittings offer a different story. I can trawl through hundreds of examples on websites without seeing a single piece that excites me. I therefore decided I am not a fittings person!

BUT….. On rare occasions I have visited collectors and been fortunate enough to see some superb fittings. Looking at and holding a fine iron sukashi tsuba or beautifully crafted soft metal work created exactly the same excitement as seeing good quality swords. I left those meetings fired with fitting enthusiasm, trawled all the websites I knew and….. nothing, back to “I am not a fittings person”.

I believe the reality is that you rarely see really good quality fittings for sale on websites either in Japan or anywhere else. That doesn’t mean what is available is bad, far from it, but it does mean we are deprived of seeing the beautiful colours and textures achieved by top craftsmen in the best examples of their work. Why this is I don’t know, but for some reason you do not see top quality work on general sale. I also believe the quality of what is being sold is lower than in the past. A review of old auction catalogues confirms this, I think.

At Samurai Art Expo, alongside the commercial stalls, the NBTHK EU and Token Society of GB will have an exhibition, which will include some of the finest tsuba and other fittings from within private collections. I have been lucky enough to see some of these pieces in person and they are stunningly beautiful.

This exhibition and the lectures on the subject running throughout the day will offer visitors an unequalled opportunity to look closely at the best of the craft. Hopefully, it will help guide future study and purchases and enhance the enjoyment of studying this field of art.

by Paul Bowman